Jones, E. P. Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, Canada.
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The Arctic Ocean is an enclosed ocean, connected to the Pacific Ocean through Bering Strait and Bering Sea, and to the Atlantic Ocean through Fram Strait and the Barents, Greenland, and Norwegian seas (see illustration). The Arctic Ocean is the central region including the marginal seas whose water characteristics are both arctic in nature and quite distinct from those of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. It includes the area between Bering Strait on the Pacific side and Fram Strait on the Atlantic side together with the Canadian Archipelago and seas along the continental shelf, and generally includes the Barents Sea. Usually it does not include the Norwegian, Greenland, or Bering seas. See also: Atlantic ocean; Bering sea; Pacific ocean
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