Wolf, Don P. Division of Reproductive Sciences, Oregon National Primate Center, Beaverton, Oregon.
White, Kenneth L. Department of Animal, Dairy, and Veterinary Sciences, Center for Integrated Biosystems, Utah State University, Logan, Utah.
Aston, Kenneth I. Department of Animal, Dairy, and Veterinary Sciences, Center for Integrated Biosystems, Utah State University, Logan, Utah.
Sessions, Benjamin R. Department of Animal, Dairy, and Veterinary Sciences, Center for Integrated Biosystems, Utah State University, Logan, Utah.
Last reviewed:March 2019
Show previous versions
- Reproductive cloning
- Therapeutic cloning
- Methods of manipulation and activation
- Status of SCNT technology
- Factors affecting SCNT efficiency
- Future research
- Links to Primary Literature
- Additional Readings
The asexual creation of a genetic copy of a biological entity, such as a cell, gene, tissue, or organism. The process of cloning is a capability possessed by plants, but not by most animals (Fig. 1). Plants generate genetic copies spontaneously, and the rooting of "cuttings" is widely used by horticulturists to propagate millions of clones annually. In animals, only some lower invertebrates can be cloned by "cutting"; for example, when earthworms are bisected, they will regenerate the missing half, resulting in two whole, genetically identical individuals. However, asexual reproduction and cloning do not normally occur in vertebrates, except for the special case of identical twinning. This is despite the fact that individual cells, called blastomeres, within the very early embryo are totipotent; that is, each is capable, if evaluated on its own, of developing into a viable term pregnancy and infant. See also: Animal reproduction; Plant propagation
The content above is only an excerpt.
for your institution. Subscribe
To learn more about subscribing to AccessScience, or to request a no-risk trial of this award-winning scientific reference for your institution, fill in your information and a member of our Sales Team will contact you as soon as possible.
to your librarian. Recommend
Let your librarian know about the award-winning gateway to the most trustworthy and accurate scientific information.
AccessScience provides the most accurate and trustworthy scientific information available.
Recognized as an award-winning gateway to scientific knowledge, AccessScience is an amazing online resource that contains high-quality reference material written specifically for students. Its dedicated editorial team is led by Sagan Award winner John Rennie. Contributors include more than 9000 highly qualified scientists and 39 Nobel Prize winners.
MORE THAN 8500 articles and Research Reviews covering all major scientific disciplines and encompassing the McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology and McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science & Technology
115,000-PLUS definitions from the McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms
3000 biographies of notable scientific figures
MORE THAN 17,000 downloadable images and animations illustrating key topics
ENGAGING VIDEOS highlighting the life and work of award-winning scientists
SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY and additional readings to guide students to deeper understanding and research
LINKS TO CITABLE LITERATURE help students expand their knowledge using primary sources of information