Mascarenhas, Joseph P. Department of Biological Sciences, State University of New York, Albany, New York.
- Liverworts, mosses, and ferns
- Flowering plants (angiosperms)
- Male gametophyte development and its regulation
- Double fertilization
- Cytoplasmic inheritance
- Links to Primary Literature
- Additional Readings
A process in many plants resulting in the fusion of a female gamete and a male gamete to form a single cell, the zygote. Both vegetative (asexual) reproduction and sexual reproduction occur in plants. Reproduction by gamete fusion is very different from vegetative reproduction, which is a common mode of multiplication in many plants. Several steps can be distinguished in the fertilization process. First, the haploid male and female gametes have to be brought into proximity. The cell membranes of the two gametes then fuse (plasmogamy), resulting in a single cell, the zygote. The nuclear membranes next fuse (karyogamy), producing a cell with a single diploid nucleus. There is a wide variety of ways by which the male and female sex cells of the different groups of plants are produced and make contact with each other prior to fertilization. Among the more primitive plants, fertilization occurs between free-swimming male and female gametes. In somewhat more advanced plants, the female gamete is stationary and partly enclosed by other cells, but the male gametes are motile. In the most highly evolved plants, the flowering plants, fertilization takes place between nonmotile gametes in the female reproductive organ. See also: Breeding (plant); Plant reproduction; Pollination
The content above is only an excerpt.
for your institution. Subscribe
To learn more about subscribing to AccessScience, or to request a no-risk trial of this award-winning scientific reference for your institution, fill in your information and a member of our Sales Team will contact you as soon as possible.
to your librarian. Recommend
Let your librarian know about the award-winning gateway to the most trustworthy and accurate scientific information.
AccessScience provides the most accurate and trustworthy scientific information available.
Recognized as an award-winning gateway to scientific knowledge, AccessScience is an amazing online resource that contains high-quality reference material written specifically for students. Its dedicated editorial team is led by Sagan Award winner John Rennie. Contributors include more than 9000 highly qualified scientists and 39 Nobel Prize winners.
MORE THAN 8500 articles and Research Reviews covering all major scientific disciplines and encompassing the McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology and McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science & Technology
115,000-PLUS definitions from the McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms
3000 biographies of notable scientific figures
MORE THAN 17,000 downloadable images and animations illustrating key topics
ENGAGING VIDEOS highlighting the life and work of award-winning scientists
SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY and additional readings to guide students to deeper understanding and research
LINKS TO CITABLE LITERATURE help students expand their knowledge using primary sources of information