Wiegand, Clyde E. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California.
Povh, Bogdan Max-Planck Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg, Germany.
- X-ray emissions
- Pionic atoms
- Kaonic atoms
- Σ− hyperonic atoms
- Antiproton atoms
- Links to Primary Literature
- Additional Readings
A hydrogenlike system that consists of a strongly interacting particle (hadron) bound in the Coulomb field and in orbit around any ordinary nucleus. The kinds of hadronic atoms that have been made and the years in which they were first identified include pionic (1952), kaonic (1966), Σ− hyperonic (1968), and antiprotonic (1970). They were made by stopping beams of negatively charged hadrons in suitable targets of various elements, for example, potassium, zinc, or lead. The lifetime of these atoms is of the order of 10−12 s, but this is long enough to identify them and study their characteristics by means of their x-ray spectra. They are available for study only in the beams of particle accelerators. Pionic atoms can be made by synchrocyclotrons and linear accelerators in the 500-MeV range. The others can be generated only at accelerators where the energies are greater than about 6 GeV. See also: Elementary particle; Hadron; Particle accelerator
The content above is only an excerpt.
for your institution. Subscribe
To learn more about subscribing to AccessScience, or to request a no-risk trial of this award-winning scientific reference for your institution, fill in your information and a member of our Sales Team will contact you as soon as possible.
to your librarian. Recommend
Let your librarian know about the award-winning gateway to the most trustworthy and accurate scientific information.
AccessScience provides the most accurate and trustworthy scientific information available.
Recognized as an award-winning gateway to scientific knowledge, AccessScience is an amazing online resource that contains high-quality reference material written specifically for students. Its dedicated editorial team is led by Sagan Award winner John Rennie. Contributors include more than 9000 highly qualified scientists and 39 Nobel Prize winners.
MORE THAN 8500 articles and Research Reviews covering all major scientific disciplines and encompassing the McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology and McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science & Technology
115,000-PLUS definitions from the McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms
3000 biographies of notable scientific figures
MORE THAN 17,000 downloadable images and animations illustrating key topics
ENGAGING VIDEOS highlighting the life and work of award-winning scientists
SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY and additional readings to guide students to deeper understanding and research
LINKS TO CITABLE LITERATURE help students expand their knowledge using primary sources of information