Marchalonis, John J. Department of Biochemistry, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina.
- Cellular immune responses
- Immunoglobulins of lower species
- Variable-region diversity in lower vertebrates
- Links to Primary Literature
- Additional Readings
The study of immunology and the immune system in evolution. All vertebrates can recognize and respond to nonself-molecular configurations on microorganisms, cells, or organic molecules by utilizing a complex recognition system termed the immune response. The presence of lymphocytes and circulating antibodies has been documented in all extant vertebrate species, ranging from the ostracoderm-derived cyclostomes, such as hagfish and lampreys, to mammals. However, the existence of induced, specific reactions directly homologous to the immune repertoire of vertebrates has not been clearly established in invertebrates. Studies have been done which focused on the presence and characterization of cells of the T and B lymphoid series in lower vertebrate species; the nature of the antibodies produced by lower vertebrate species and their relationship to well-characterized immunoglobulin classes of mammals; the extent of diversity in the antibodies of lower vertebrates with particular respect to the degree of variable-region heterogeneity within lower species compared with that exhibited by mammals; and the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequence of genes encoding variable regions of immunoglobin of lower species. Studies designed to pinpoint the origin of immune diversification have been actively pursued in the protochordates, such as tunicates, and there is also considerable interest in the defense mechanisms of invertebrate phyla not directly related to the evolutionary stream which gave rise to the chordates.
The content above is only an excerpt.
for your institution. Subscribe
To learn more about subscribing to AccessScience, or to request a no-risk trial of this award-winning scientific reference for your institution, fill in your information and a member of our Sales Team will contact you as soon as possible.
to your librarian. Recommend
Let your librarian know about the award-winning gateway to the most trustworthy and accurate scientific information.
AccessScience provides the most accurate and trustworthy scientific information available.
Recognized as an award-winning gateway to scientific knowledge, AccessScience is an amazing online resource that contains high-quality reference material written specifically for students. Its dedicated editorial team is led by Sagan Award winner John Rennie. Contributors include more than 9000 highly qualified scientists and 39 Nobel Prize winners.
MORE THAN 8500 articles and Research Reviews covering all major scientific disciplines and encompassing the McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology and McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science & Technology
115,000-PLUS definitions from the McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms
3000 biographies of notable scientific figures
MORE THAN 17,000 downloadable images and animations illustrating key topics
ENGAGING VIDEOS highlighting the life and work of award-winning scientists
SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY and additional readings to guide students to deeper understanding and research
LINKS TO CITABLE LITERATURE help students expand their knowledge using primary sources of information