Infectious salmon anemia
Kibenge, Frederick S. B. Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, Canada.
- Virus spread regionally and internationally
- Clinical manifestation
- Historical perspective
- Prevention and control
- Links to Primary Literature
- Additional Readings
Infectious salmon anemia (ISA) is a serious viral disease of marine-farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). It is caused by the ISA virus (ISAV), which belongs to the genus Isavirus in the family Orthomyxoviridae; other members of this family include the influenza viruses. ISA is arguably the most economically important viral disease of marine-farmed Atlantic salmon when considering production losses, the loss of export markets, and the associated social impacts. The 2007–2011 ISA outbreak in the Atlantic salmon industry in Chile is a powerful example of the economic significance of ISA; projected losses for this period were estimated to be approximately US$1 billion (that is, 50% of the economic value of the Chilean salmon industry), and full recovery of the industry is not expected before 2013. Therefore, eradication of the disease and control of the viral infection have been priorities for the Atlantic salmon industry, regardless of where the disease has occurred. In addition, because the farmed fish are reared in the same marine water column with wild fish, the mere presence of ISAV invariably elicits strong opposition to aquaculture from environmental groups.
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