Large Hadron Collider (LHC)
Evans, Lyndon CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research), Geneva, Switzerland.
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The largest and most powerful particle accelerator ever built. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is located at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN) near Geneva, Switzerland (Fig. 1). It consists of two rings in which two counterrotating beams of hadrons (protons) brought into collision at four points around the ring containing particle detectors, which register the energy and matter produced by the shattering and scattering of the protons. The protons in the beams are accelerated to an energy of 7 teraelectronvolts (1 TeV = 1012 eV), for a combined collision energy of 14 TeV, which is seven times the energy achieved in the Tevatron, the most powerful particle physics instrument in the world prior to the LHC. The LHC began its operations in 2008, reaching a world record for beam intensity of 1.18 TeV and collisions at 2.36 TeV in late 2009. See also: Electronvolt; Hadron; Particle accelerator; Physics; Proton
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