Symko, Orest G. Department of Physics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah.
- Production of low temperatures
- Low-temperature phenomena
- Additional Readings
A branch of physics dealing with physical properties of matter at temperatures such that thermal fluctuations are greatly reduced and effects of interactions at the quantum-mechanical level can be observed. As the temperature is lowered, order sets in (either in space or in motion), and quantum-mechanical phenomena can be observed on a macroscopic scale. As an example, consider a magnetic system. In a sample at high temperatures, there is a high degree of disorder (Fig. 1a) corresponding to a large entropy because of the random orientations of its magnetic moments, the sample being in a paramagnetic state. At low temperatures (Fig. 1b), the sample is in a highly ordered state, the ferromagnetic state (lower entropy), and the details of the interactions responsible for this state can be studied. See also: Entropy; Magnetism
The content above is only an excerpt.
for your institution. Subscribe
To learn more about subscribing to AccessScience, or to request a no-risk trial of this award-winning scientific reference for your institution, fill in your information and a member of our Sales Team will contact you as soon as possible.
to your librarian. Recommend
Let your librarian know about the award-winning gateway to the most trustworthy and accurate scientific information.
AccessScience provides the most accurate and trustworthy scientific information available.
Recognized as an award-winning gateway to scientific knowledge, AccessScience is an amazing online resource that contains high-quality reference material written specifically for students. Its dedicated editorial team is led by Sagan Award winner John Rennie. Contributors include more than 9000 highly qualified scientists and 39 Nobel Prize winners.
MORE THAN 8500 articles and Research Reviews covering all major scientific disciplines and encompassing the McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology and McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science & Technology
115,000-PLUS definitions from the McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms
3000 biographies of notable scientific figures
MORE THAN 17,000 downloadable images and animations illustrating key topics
ENGAGING VIDEOS highlighting the life and work of award-winning scientists
SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY and additional readings to guide students to deeper understanding and research
LINKS TO CITABLE LITERATURE help students expand their knowledge using primary sources of information