Walker, Warren F., Jr. Department of Biology, Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio.
Young, Iain S. Department of Pure and Applied Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.
Altringham, John D. Department of Pure and Applied Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds, West Yorkshire, United Kingdom.
Noback, Charles R. Department of Anatomy, Columbia University, New York, New York.
- Comparative Anatomy
- Axial musculature
- Appendicular musculature
- Branchiomeric musculature
- Integumentary musculature
- Muscle Mechanics
- Insect flight muscle
- Differentiation of striated muscles
- Axial musculature
- Paired appendages
- Head and visceral arch musculature
- Voluntary skin muscles
- Involuntary muscles
- Histogenesis of Muscle
- Voluntary muscle
- Involuntary muscle
- Cardiac muscle
- Additional Readings
The muscular system consists of muscle cells, the contractile elements with the specialized property of exerting tension during contraction, and associated connective tissues. The three morphologic types of muscles are voluntary muscle, involuntary muscle, and cardiac muscle. The voluntary, striated, or skeletal muscles are involved with general posture and movements of the head, body, and limbs. The involuntary, nonstriated, or smooth muscles are the muscles of the walls of hollow organs of the digestive, circulatory, respiratory, and reproductive systems, and other visceral structures. Cardiac muscle is the intrinsic muscle tissue of the heart. See also: Muscle
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