Fanta, Paul E. Department of Chemistry, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois.
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A member of the class of organic compounds in which the nitro group (NO2) is attached directly to the cyclic, aromatic nucleus. The prototypal compound is nitrobenzene, which was first synthesized in 1834 and produced commercially in England in 1856. It is prepared by the reaction of benzene with nitric acid in the presence of sulfuric acid, as shown in reaction (1). The reaction is very efficient, with yields approaching 100%. It is an exothermic reaction, and careful control of the temperature is necessary to avoid the formation of m-dinitrobenzene (1). See also: Benzene
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