Quantum voltage standards
Williams, Jonathan Time, Quantum and Electromagnetics Division, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, Middlesex, United Kingdom.
- Josephson junction
- Junction as a voltage standard
- Junction parameters
- Josephson junction arrays
- Junction technology
- Voltage measurements
- Links to Primary Literature
- Additional Readings
A quantum standard of voltage is made possible by the Josephson effect, a remarkable property of a thin junction between two superconducting materials. The effect was predicted theoretically in 1962 by Brian Josephson, after whom it is named, and it has revolutionized the way in which standards of voltage are maintained and disseminated across the world. It relates voltage to frequency with a constant of proportionality that depends only on the Planck constant, h, and the elementary charge, e. Thus, voltage standards can be realized at any time or place with an access to just a frequency reference. It is estimated that in excess of 50 primary standards of voltage are in existence at laboratories around the world, and they work together to provide a consistent and stable basis for voltage measurement in science, engineering, and manufacturing.
The content above is only an excerpt.
for your institution. Subscribe
To learn more about subscribing to AccessScience, or to request a no-risk trial of this award-winning scientific reference for your institution, fill in your information and a member of our Sales Team will contact you as soon as possible.
to your librarian. Recommend
Let your librarian know about the award-winning gateway to the most trustworthy and accurate scientific information.
AccessScience provides the most accurate and trustworthy scientific information available.
Recognized as an award-winning gateway to scientific knowledge, AccessScience is an amazing online resource that contains high-quality reference material written specifically for students. Its dedicated editorial team is led by Sagan Award winner John Rennie. Contributors include more than 9000 highly qualified scientists and 39 Nobel Prize winners.
MORE THAN 8500 articles and Research Reviews covering all major scientific disciplines and encompassing the McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology and McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science & Technology
115,000-PLUS definitions from the McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms
3000 biographies of notable scientific figures
MORE THAN 17,000 downloadable images and animations illustrating key topics
ENGAGING VIDEOS highlighting the life and work of award-winning scientists
SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY and additional readings to guide students to deeper understanding and research
LINKS TO CITABLE LITERATURE help students expand their knowledge using primary sources of information