Kit, Saul Division of Biochemical Virology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas.
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- Attenuated-live vaccines
- Noninfectious vaccines
- Killed vaccines
- Polysaccharide vaccines
- Subunit vaccines
- Synthetic peptide vaccines
- Biosynthetic polypeptide vaccines
- Anti-idiotype antibody vaccines
- DNA vaccines
- Cytokines and immunomodulation
- Recombinant viral vectors and chimeric viruses
- Diarrheal disease vaccines
- Rotavirus vaccines
- Oral transgenic plant vaccines
- Cancer vaccines
- Links to Primary Literature
- Additional Readings
Active immunization against a variety of microorganisms or their components, with the ultimate goal of protecting the host against subsequent challenge by the naturally occurring infectious agent. The terms vaccination and vaccine were originally used only in connection with Edward Jenner's method for preventing smallpox, introduced in 1796. In 1881, Louis Pasteur proposed that these terms should be used to describe any prophylactic immunization. Vaccination now refers to active immunization against a variety of bacteria, viruses, and parasites (for example, malaria and trypanosomes) [Fig. 1]. See also: Biologicals; Cellular immunology; Immunity; Immunology
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